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Glossary
Activities implemented jointly (AIJ)

activities carried out under the Convention to mitigate climate change through partnerships between an investor from a developed country and a counterpart in a host country under a pilot phase that ended in the year 2000.

Additionality

according to the Kyoto Protocol, gas emission reductions generated by Clean Development Mechanism and Joint Implementation project activities must be additional to those that otherwise would occur. “Additionality” is established when there is a positive difference between the emissions that occur in the baseline scenario, and the emissions that occur in the proposed project.

Assigned Amount (AA)

quantity of GHGs that an Annex I country can release in accordance with the Kyoto Protocol, during the first commitment period of that protocol (2008-2012).

Base year

base year emissions, under the Kyoto Protocol, are defined as the aggregate anthropogenic carbon dioxide equivalent emissions of the GHGs listed in Annex A sources in a historical base year. For most Annex I Parties, the historical base year is 1990 but Parties included in Annex I undergoing the process of transition to a market economy may choose a year or period other than 1990, in accordance with Article 3, paragraph 52. Annex I Parties may choose to use 1995 as the base year for total emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride (F-gases), in accordance with Article 3, paragraph 8.

Baseline
(for an Article 6) the scenario that reasonably represents the anthropogenic emissions by sources or anthropogenic removals by sinks of GHGs that would occur in the absence of the proposed project (9/CMP.1, Annex, Appendix B, paragraph 1). A baseline shall cover emissions from all gases, sectors and source categories listed in Annex A, and anthropogenic removals by sinks, within the project boundary (9/CMP.1, Annex, Appendix B, paragraph 1).
Cadastre of GHG emissions

database of the inventory and monitoring of GHG emissions, reflecting the dynamics of GHG emissions from a historical perspective.

Carbon market
set of relations that arise between individuals and legal entities, as well as states associated with the transfer, assignment, sale, mortgage, and other actions in point of GHG emissions’ rights.
Certified emission reductions (CER)
unit equal to 1 metric tonne of CO2 equivalent. CERs are issued for emission reductions from CDM project activities. Two special types of CERs called temporary certified emission reduction (tCERs) and long-term certified emission reductions (lCERs) are issued for emission removals from afforestation and reforestation CDM projects.
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
mechanism provided by Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol, designed to assist developing countries in achieving sustainable development by permitting industrialized countries to finance projects for reducing GHG emission in developing countries and receive credit for doing so.
Commitment period
time period for which the accepted and defined obligations. The first commitment period is the period of 2008-2012. Negotiations on commitments for the second period are underway until now.